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Carson has advocated for simplifying the IRS tax code with a flat tax and eliminating tax loopholes. He proposed a tax rate of 14.9 percent that would eliminate all deductions, including those for charitable giving and the home mortgage deduction. While he refers to this as a flat tax, the 14.9 percent rate would only apply to income beginning at 150 percent of the federal poverty level, and he proposes that those under that level would pay a “de minimis” tax of $100 on their income. Taxes on capital gains, dividends, and interest income would be eliminated entirely.

He would lower the corporate tax rate to 14.9 percent as well, and pledged a six-month moratorium on taxes for corporate profits currently held overseas so long as 10 percent of the funds brought back are invested in specially designated “21st Century Enterprise Zones” in high-poverty and high-unemployment areas. Future corporate profits earned overseas would be exempt from U.S. taxes.

Carson has criticized the regulatory environment for becoming too burdensome on business, saying that it will eventually lead to government being able to shut down enterprises that refuse to cooperate.

However, Carson has said that regulation has a role in controlling excessive corporate power and greed and has blamed deregulation of the finance industry for the economic meltdown of 2008.

Carson opposes net neutrality, a policy that gives the Federal Communications Commission substantial authority over how Internet providers do business and offer their services.

He has been inconsistent on the subject of raising the minimum wage. In May 2015 he said it should “probably, or possibly” should be increased. He reversed that position in the fourth Republican debate in early November 2015, saying, “I would not raise it.” Within a day, he contradicted that statement by saying he was “still very open to talking to people” about raising the minimum wage, although he still expressed concern about job losses. In the first Republican debate in August 2015, he said he favors indexing it to inflation, and having a two-tier minimum wage system so younger, inexperienced workers would still have job opportunities.

Carson said deregulation of the financial sector led to the financial and economic meltdown of 2008, and he praised the Glass-Steagall act while criticizing its repeal. In an August 2015 op-ed he argued that the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, created by Dodd-Frank following the 2007-08 financial crisis, was the “ultimate example of regulatory overreach, a nanny state mechanism asserting its control over everyday Americans that they did not want, did not ask for and do not need.”

Carson praised the role of unions in American history in his 2012 book, America the Beautiful, crediting them with achieving safe working conditions and fair wages. He also voices concerns about union bosses trying to obtain increased power and influence.

Carson has advocated for offshore drilling and exploration for domestic sources of energy in the United States, particularly in Alaska, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. He has said he believes energy independence is a key component in improving world peace and favors ending the ban on export of oil and natural gas.

He said climate change is not an excuse to avoid developing American’s natural resources, saying that “whether we are experiencing global warming or a coming ice age … we as responsible human beings must be concerned about our surroundings and what we will pass on to future generations.”

Carson has advocated limiting government spending and expressed deep concern about the state of the national debt and the budget deficit. He proposed in his 2012 book, American the Beautiful, cutting every government department by 10 percent across the board, with no program or area being off limits, and in a 2015 interview said that as president he would order his department and agency heads to cut spending by 3 or 4 percent by targeting waste.

Carson also promises to impose a moratorium on government hiring, says he will not fill the positions of retiring federal employees, and pledges to freeze the overall level of government spending in order to achieve a balanced budget.

He also urged conservatives to vote against any politician who supported raising the debt limit, although his comments were aimed at primary voters, and he suggested once the primaries were over it was time for conservatives to vote for the Republican line regardless of how the candidate voted on the debt ceiling.

Carson has no record on privatization.

Carson has shown mixed opinions on how to address issues in the American health care system. At one point he proposed that the government put $2,000 each year in a health savings account for every citizen and recommended that the government take over catastrophic care. This would have included abolishing Medicare and Medicaid and expecting retirees to rely on the built-up money in their HSA. Carson has since released an outline of a health care reform proposal centered on what he calls Health Empowerment Accounts, similar to Health Savings Accounts. Very few details were provided however, other than that funds in the accounts could be transferred among family members. It is unclear whether the government would fund the accounts, whether they would be mandatory, and whether the high-deductible plans they would be paired with would be the only type of insurance available.

His Medicare and Medicaid proposals are somewhat more substantive, allowing beneficiaries of both programs to receive a lump-sum to purchase insurance, and letting them have Health Empowerment Accounts. Medicare eligibility would be raised two months every year until reaching the age of 70, and then it would be linked directly to increases in life expectancy.

In the past he has generally advocated for free market-based solutions to American’s health care problems. He is chairman of American Legacy PAC’s Save our Healthcare Project. The project has called for the full and complete repeal of Obamacare, replacing it with a free market solution. Other suggestions from the organization include eliminating any reform that is centralized in the federal government or includes bureaucracy, and allowing individuals to choose health care options based on moral and religious freedoms.

Carson said he would keep one major element of Obamacare, however: the pre-existing conditions requirement that prevents health insurers from rejecting coverage for people who are already sick. He proposes that administration of this arrangement be set up like the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and that a 5 percent fee on the profits of insurance companies fund it. In a 1996 interview, Carson said:

“The entire concept of for-profits for the insurance companies makes absolutely no sense. … The first thing we need to do is get rid of for-profit insurance companies. We have a lack of policies and we need to make the government responsible for catastrophic health care.”

He said cost savings in health care can be achieved through tort reform.

Carson has also said that private charity is better and more effective in caring for people in need than government welfare and entitlement programs. He has concerns about how government programs compete with private charity and how they make the needy dependent on the government. He has proposed that government resources be reallocated to educate and provide opportunities, but with the inclusion of a work or education requirement.

Carson has proposed applying high tariffs on products manufactured in other countries that are imported to the United States, and reduced tariffs on products that require assembly in the U.S. after being imported.

Carson has recommended that the American immigration system mirror that of Canada, allowing for immigrants to obtain work visas. Guest workers would pay taxes but wouldn’t be eligible to vote. All guest workers would have to go through the same process as all other immigrants to obtain citizenship. Such workers would need to apply for their visa from outside the country, necessitating that illegal immigrants return to their home countries in order to apply, and they would only be eligible for jobs that can’t be filled by Americans. He recommends severely punishing employers who violate immigration and employment laws.

Carson believes securing the borders is necessary before any programs can be enacted, and has suggested that drone strikes on the caves and tunnels used by smugglers could be an option (he clarified that the strikes would not occur while illegal immigrants were in the caves and tunnels). He said he favors allowing illegal immigrants currently in the country to stay if they pay fines, saying those who favor mass deportation have “no idea what they’re talking about,” calling such plans “impractical.”

In response to the Obama administration’s decision to admit 10,000 refugees from Syria, Carson originally said they should all be screened to ensure none of them are terrorists and that his policy would be to admit people who “can boost our economy based on their skills and what they bring in” but didn’t offer a specific number he would allow in. Following the November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris, he said the U.S. should not allow any Syrian refugees to enter the U.S., suggesting in an op-ed that Syrian refugees should instead be sheltered in Arab countries until they can return to their home country at a later time.

He has said he favors, for anti-terror purposes, having a database of not only refugees admitted to the United States but all foreign-born citizens and residents, as well as possibly all native-born Americans as well.

Carson was extremely critical of the most recent farm bill, which he said was part of an effort to put “a whole ’nother industry — the farm industry — and put them also completely under the thumb of the government,” and he noted it was an example of how “both parties have people who believe in big-government control.”

He has said he would transfer federal lands currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management in the West to the states through a gradual process.

Dr. Carson has no record on corporate welfare.

Carson said deregulation of the financial sector led to the financial and economic meltdown of 2008, and he praised the Glass-Steagall act while criticizing its repeal. In an August 2015 op-ed he argued that the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, created by Dodd-Frank following the 2007-08 financial crisis, was the “ultimate example of regulatory overreach, a nanny state mechanism asserting its control over everyday Americans that they did not want, did not ask for and do not need.”

Carson previously argued for eliminating the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and replacing it with another system. He has since backed off that stance and instead wants to give the secretary of Veterans Affairs more authority to “change the current organizational culture, enforce accountability and rein in outrageous costs.” He would preserve the VHA’s “centers of excellence” in areas like traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress, and prosthetics while giving veterans “health empowerment accounts” that allow them to see providers outside of the VHA system.

He has said he is open to reinstituting the military’s previous prohibitions on women serving in combat roles and homosexuals serving in the military.

Carson has said little about military preparedness and budgets, but he has called for the U.S. to harden its electrical infrastructure and enhance its cyber security, and he also called the U.S. Navy and Air Force “woefully small” while pledging to “invest in our military.”

He suggested that the Obama administration’s lack of action and support during the uprising in Iran in 2009 has led to much of the current crisis in the Middle East. He referred to the nuclear weapons deal negotiated with Iran as “perhaps the worst deal in the history of America,” vowing to get rid of it on his first day in office.

Asked about the original decision to invade Iraq, he said he was never in favor of the decision and said he would have found another way to remove Saddam Hussein. He also said that he told President Bush he shouldn’t invade Afghanistan, instead suggesting the U.S. announce a goal of making the U.S. “petroleum independent,” which he believes would have spurred Arab states to quickly turn over Osama Bin Laden and any other terrorists the U.S. requested.

Carson has blamed the Obama administration for allowing ISIS to grow by not acting swiftly enough. He has called for an increase in drone strikes on terrorists and for U.S. troops to be used on the ground to defeat ISIS. He has also said the U.S. needs to increase its “information war” against ISIS, and arm and support what he believes should ultimately be a free Kurdistan (meaning it would separate from Iraq).

He favors establishing a no-fly zone along the Syria/Turkey border to protect refugees and said the U.S. should not cede control over Syrian airspace to Russia. He also said a focus of U.S. efforts should be either destroying or seizing the oil fields in Eastern Syria that provide funding for ISIS, and he also advocates a formal declaration of war from Congress against the terrorist group.

In response to the Obama administration’s decision to admit 10,000 refugees from Syria, Carson originally said they should all be screened to ensure none of them are terrorists and that his policy would be to admit people who “can boost our economy based on their skills and what they bring in” but didn’t offer a specific number he would allow in. Following the November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris, he said the U.S. should not allow any Syrian refugees to enter the U.S., suggesting in an op-ed that Syrian refugees should instead be sheltered in Arab countries until they can return to their home country at a later time. He also called for the U.S. to help recruit male refugees to form a military force that would fight ISIS and protect refugee populations.

He has said he favors, for anti-terror purposes, having a database of not only refugees admitted to the United States but all foreign-born citizens and residents, as well as possibly all native-born Americans as well. In late December he called for the Department of State to designate the Muslim Brotherhood as a terrorist organization, and also for the government to investigate the Council on American-Islamic Relations as a possible terrorist organization.

Carson said he opposes the National Security Agency’s bulk collection of telephone data, arguing it is a violation of the Fourth Amendment. He does support parts of the Patriot Act, however, and said he believes Apple should comply with a court order to unlock the iPhone of one of the San Bernardino terrorists.

Carson supports having a strong American military and “supporting our allies and aggressively opposing our foes.” He has criticized the Obama administration for its handling of the Benghazi attacks and for its approach toward ISIS.

He said that the Obama administration’s failures to send assistance to Americans under siege in Benghazi demonstrated a “complete lack of understanding of security.”

He suggested that the Obama administration’s lack of action and support during the uprising in Iran in 2009 has led to much of the current crisis in the Middle East. He referred to the nuclear weapons deal negotiated with Iran as “perhaps the worst deal in the history of America,” vowing to get rid of it on his first day in office.

Asked about the original decision to invade Iraq, he said he was never in favor of the decision and said he would have found another way to remove Saddam Hussein. He also said that he told President Bush he shouldn’t invade Afghanistan, instead suggesting the U.S. announce a goal of making the U.S. “petroleum independent,” which he believes would have spurred Arab states to quickly turn over Osama Bin Laden and any other terrorists the U.S. requested.

Carson wants the U.S. to lend more support to Ukraine in their struggle against Russian-backed separatists and to press European countries to look for and develop alternatives to Russian-supplied energy. He called for reinforcing American commitments to NATO.

Carson has also called for the U.S. to make clear that America stands with our Asian allies against China’s “territorial ambitions.” He believes China’s economic growth to be a national security threat, and he called for the U.S. to slash the nation’s corporate income tax to spur growth at home.

Carson has pressed the importance of the next presidential election to the future of the Supreme Court. He said that if another progressive president can appoint three Supreme Court justices, “that’s the end of the United States as we know it.” He also said he would look to appoint justices to the Supreme Court who “have a record of honoring life.”

In an interview with Fox News’ Chris Wallace in May of 2015, Carson suggested it was an “open question” whether a president is obligated to follow the rulings of the Supreme Court. He said a discussion of the court’s role in judicial review is necessary “because it has changed from the original intent.”  Additionally, Carson suggested that “[w]hen judges do not carry out their duties in an appropriate way, our Congress actually has the right to reprimand or remove them.”

Following the Supreme Court’s decision in King v. Burwell (Obamacare tax credits), Carson tweeted that he was “disappointed” in the opinion. In Obergefell v. Hodges (same-sex marriage), Carson said that he “strongly disagree[s]” with the Court’s opinion, but noted that “their ruling is now the law of the land” and called upon Congress to protect religious liberty in the wake of the decision.

Carson has voiced support for the 2nd Amendment and noted that it was adopted in large part to protect against “tyrannical central government,” but he has also said that persons who live in populated areas may not have a right to possess semi-automatic weapons. At one time he supported a ban on “assault weapons” but has since changed his mind. He has suggested the practice of providing drivers’ licenses to individuals who meet minimum requirements could serve as a model for finding a policy that protects the 2nd Amendment while also protecting the safety of citizens. Following a recent shooting at a college in Oregon, Carson suggesting training and arming teachers might be an appropriate response. He has said the Centers for Disease Control should be allowed to conduct research on gun violence, something many gun-rights advocates fear will lead to biased research funded with taxpayer dollars.

Carson says he is strongly opposed to abortion, stating that he believes life starts at conception. After his campaign initially described his views by explaining he “thinks it is not something that is legislated” and that “you cannot legislate morality,” suggesting a position more in line with pro-choice views, he said in late October 2015 that he believes abortion should be illegal in nearly all cases, with possible exceptions for the life and health of the mother. He had earlier endorsed a federal ban on abortions after 20 weeks. He has said that he thinks Planned Parenthood places a large number of abortion clinics in primarily black neighborhoods in an attempt to limit population growth in those communities, citing the organization founder’s belief in eugenics.

As a doctor he referred women to other doctors who would perform abortions in cases where there were genetic defects, although he said he wasn’t endorsing abortion by doing so, only allowing women to understand their options.

Carson supports a traditional definition of marriage as between a man and a woman.  He has also expressed support for same-sex civil unions for legal purposes, provided those unions aren’t defined as marriage. He also has said he would not favor a constitutional amendment overturning the Supreme Court’s decision affirming a right to same-sex marriage, and has defended the right of people to choose not to provide services to same-sex weddings if it violated their religious beliefs.

He believes strongly in religious liberty and the role of faith in public life and that efforts to inhibit the exercise of religion in American society are unconstitutional.

He has defended the right of people to choose not to provide services to same-sex weddings if it violated their religious beliefs, although in the case of a Kentucky county clerk refusing to issue marriage licenses over the same-sex marriage issue he has said she should respect the law and issue licenses.

Carson has said he would give the Department of Education the authority to deny federal funds to colleges that exhibit “extreme political bias,” which could severely inhibit free speech on college campuses.

Carson has been critical of the Obama administration for what he considers disrespecting the role of Congress and/or violating the separation of powers enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. He has announced he supports statehood for Puerto Rico.

 

Carson believes that school choice and competition are important tools for keeping schools from becoming complacent. He has voiced support for virtual classrooms, to let students from everywhere have access to the best teachers, as well as support for vouchers and charter schools.

He called for the creation of one single fund for all public schools and for the even distribution of resources for all school districts, without regard to whether the school is in a wealthy or poor area. He has also proposed shrinking the Department of Education and having it distribute more block grants, and he has also encouraged the creation of private charitable trusts that would fund school choice programs.

Along with his wife, Carson founded the Carson Scholarship Fund. The fund provides scholarships for students in grades 4-11 for “academic excellence and humanitarian qualities.” Since its founding, the fund has awarded more than 5,700 scholarships.

As a senator, Clinton voted against President George W. Bush’s major tax-cut packages. That said, once they were enacted, she did generally vote to extend many of the existing cuts.

She has endorsed the so-called “Buffett Rule,” which aims to make high-income earners pay a larger percentage of their income in taxes, without providing many details other than a 5 percent surtax on personal income over $5 million, unveiled in early January 2016.

In order to pay for her five-year, $275 billion infrastructure spending proposal, Clinton has said she would raise taxes on businesses (which she terms “reforms”), but she has not specified what taxes would be raised.

Clinton voted in favor of a bill to extend the moratorium on Internet taxes.

According to an analysis by the Tax Policy Center, Clinton’s tax policies would raise approximately $1.1 trillion over the next decade, with the top 1 percent of earners paying nearly three-quarters of those new taxes.

As a senator she voted to increase the minimum wage. She has announced her support for a $12 federal minimum wage, well above the current $7.25 standard but below the $15 level many progressive activists prefer.

She also voted in favor of the Sarbanes-Oxley bill to impose heavy accounting and bookkeeping regulations on certain industries and was a co-sponsor of legislation after the housing crisis that would have imposed a temporary moratorium on foreclosures. She endorsed Obama’s call for tough “net neutrality” regulations to be imposed on Internet service providers.

As part of a proposal to reduce energy use in the U.S., she announced she would work to establish energy-efficient model building codes, expand the number of products covered under Energy Star ratings, and subject more appliances and equipment to energy efficiency mandates.

Clinton is on the record speaking of the benefits of fracking, though she favors regulating the practice.

As a senator, Clinton supported a so-called card check bill, which would allow unions to dispense with the need for a vote to organize at a particular company. The bill also curtailed an employer’s ability to influence the outcome of organization efforts.

Clinton is on the record speaking of the benefits of fracking, though she favors regulating the practice. She nominally supports exporting natural gas and oil production and sees gas as a clean, job-creating alternative to coal. After months of declining to weigh in on whether the Keystone XL pipeline should be approved, citing her role as secretary of state in helping guide the assessment process, Clinton finally announced in September 2015 that she opposed construction of the pipeline.

Clinton opposes drilling in the Arctic Wildlife National Reserve and voted in favor of an amendment to that effect. She does support some offshore drilling, but again calls for heavy regulation by government in that arena. In August 2015 she announced her opposition to an Obama administration decision to allow drilling in the Arctic Ocean. She has also said that she would prevent any further development of fossil fuel resources on federal lands, although it wasn’t clear if she would allow extraction to continue on sites that have already been developed.

In a March 2016 forum, she said a Clinton administration would “put a lot of coal miners and coal companies out of business.”

Clinton strongly favors efforts to curb carbon emissions in response to what she perceives to be a threat posed by global warming. A firm supporter of cap-and-trade schemes, she also supports the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. As a senator, she supported a bill that would have expanded federally protected lands and waters.

As part of her 2016 campaign, Clinton has called for a goal of 500 million additional solar panels installed across the country and for renewable resources to generate enough electricity to power every home in the country.

Like Obama, Clinton proposed a stimulus package during her 2008 campaign. Her $110 billion plan would have focused on helping low-income families. She has long been opposed to a balanced budget amendment, though she did vote in favor of a one-year moratorium on earmarks. In 2001, she voted in favor of an additional $123.1 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education.

Clinton has been sharply critical of the budget sequestration enacted as part of the debt limit deal in 2011, focusing in on the reduction in spending on scientific research. She also praised the 2013 Ryan-Murray budget compromise deal to increase spending in the short term in exchange for promised cuts in later years.

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Clinton has said she does not support a single-payer plan but meeting notes from her early health care reform efforts during her husband’s presidency show she favored it at that time. She has expressed her support for Obamacare and said she is open to making changes to it, and she proposed repealing the so-called “Cadillac tax” imposed on expensive health plans with the caveat that the lost revenue should be made up elsewhere.

She has also laid out specific proposals to limit out-of-pocket health care costs, including requiring insurers to provide three “sick” visits to the doctor at no out-of-pocket cost, offering a tax credit for out-of-pocket costs, and capping out-of-pocket drug costs at $250 a month.

She reiterated her support for a “public option” in Obamacare, a government-run insurer that would compete with private insurance companies in the market. She supported this idea in her 2008 campaign as well.

She also would require pharmaceutical companies to invest a specific percentage of their profits in research and development, eliminate the tax deductibility of consumer advertising, give Medicare the power to set drug prices for the program, and reduce the number of years biological medicines received patent protection from 12 to seven.

Her campaign has suggested that funds collected from pharmaceutical companies that fail to invest the required percentage in research and development be given to generic medicine manufacturers to encourage competition.

In December 2015, Clinton proposed spending $2 billion a year over 10 years to find a cure to Alzheimer’s disease.

Clinton was also instrumental in passing the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), a program that provides federal matching funds to states to provide health insurance for low-income families with children.

Clinton joined most of her Democratic colleagues in the Senate in voting against President Bush’s expansion of Medicare to create a prescription drug plan, largely based on a belief it was not generous enough to seniors and did not do more to control drug prices.

During her 2008 presidential campaign, Clinton proposed a plan that would mandate insurance coverage for all Americans. The plan’s cost, estimated (by her campaign) at $110 billion, would have been funded by repealing the Bush tax cuts.

One area Clinton did focus on during her Senate career was entitlements. In the past she supported keeping the cap on taxable income for Social Security, but more recently has suggested she might consider extending payroll taxes at income above the cap. She has proposed an initiative that would create retirement accounts for Americans but opposes any effort to privatize Social Security by allowing individuals to control their own accounts. She has said she wants to “enhance” Social Security, thought to mean offering more generous benefits to poorer retirees, but has not provided specifics or addressed the question of whether benefits should be increased for all retirees. She has said she would not rule out raising the retirement age for some people in the future, although she also said she doesn’t favor it.

In 1996, she was heavily criticized for supporting her husband’s decision to sign the welfare reform bill, and she supported a bipartisan plan to increase work requirements for welfare recipients. She has proposed an initiative that would create retirement accounts for Americans but opposes any effort to privatize Social Security by allowing individuals to control their own accounts. She has said she wants to “enhance” Social Security, thought to mean offering more generous benefits to at least some retirees, without providing specifics.

While not overtly opposed to NAFTA, given that it was a signature priority for her husband, she did state that she thought there ought to be higher priorities, such as health care. She went on to criticize NAFTA during her 2008 campaign for the presidency. She also opposed the Central America Free Trade Agreement, though she favored trade agreements with Singapore, Chile and Oman. More recently, Clinton has expressed reservations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a trade deal recently concluded by the Obama administration, and announced she would have to study the deal to decide whether to support it.

Clinton strongly favors immigration reform. She supported a comprehensive immigration reform plan in 2007 that would create a new type of visa allowing anyone in the U.S. without a valid visa to remain in the country for the rest of their lives. After 13 years, these immigrants would then be eligible for citizenship.  She voted for the construction of a fence between the United States and Mexico and supports a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants already here, which she calls “essential” to reform.

More recently, she vowed to go beyond Obama’s executive orders on immigration to expand the ability of illegal aliens to stay in the U.S. She has criticized the “sanctuary city” policies that prevent or hinder the deportation of illegal immigrants who commit other serious crimes.

She has seldom weighed in on agricultural issues. She did vote in favor of an amendment limiting subsidies to a married couple to $250,000, and more recently said she would double funding to the Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development program, which provides training and assistance to people new to agriculture.

Clinton supports maintaining the Export-Import Bank, a taxpayer-supported institution that primarily benefits large U.S. corporations including Boeing and General Electric. At an event for the biotechnology industry, she suggested the federal government should subsidize companies in the industry against the risks they face as investors, and she proposes doling out to generic medicine manufacturers funds that have been collected from pharmaceutical companies that don’t in her view invest enough in research and development.

As part of a $25 billion program aimed at supporting small businesses, particularly those owned by women and minorities, she has pledged that she will “encourage banks, businesses, and foundations to match capital and financing” to entrepreneurs who have gone through government-approved training and support programs, which could put the government in the business of directing private investment into favored firms.

As a senator she previously opposed an ethanol mandate requiring an increasing amount to be blended into gasoline, but in 2015 she reversed her position to favor the mandate.

Clinton voted for the Troubled Asset Relief Program in 2008, generally described as a bailout for large banks, when she was still in the U.S. Senate.

Clinton revealed a Wall Street reform agenda in October 2015 that would extend the statute of limitations for financial crimes, devote more Department of Justice and SEC resources to investigation and prosecution of financial crimes, place a “fee on risk” aimed at leverage and short-term loans by financial firms, and impose requirements that bonuses paid to senior managers and executives be returned if the bank later loses money and has its financial health imperiled. She has also called for giving regulators the authority to re-organize or break up large firms, without providing details, as well as imposing a tax on high-frequency trading.

Clinton voted for the Troubled Asset Relief Program in 2008, generally described as a bailout for large banks, when she was still in the U.S. Senate.

Clinton voted in favor of the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation imposing new accounting and investment regulations on companies and has opposed efforts to reform or repeal the Dodd-Frank regulations of the financial industry. She has also opposed efforts to bring back the Glass-Steagall Act’s separation of investment and commercial banking. As part of her rural development agenda, she has proposed simplifying regulations for community banks that often provide credit in rural areas.

She has also proposed increasing the potential rewards for Wall Street whistleblowers who come forward with information, currently capped at $1.6 million, and banning “golden parachute” payouts to persons in the financial industry who go to work for government.

As a senator, Clinton proposed a bill to increase the size of the Army by 80,000 soldiers. This was even as she opposed the Bush administration on Iraq and Afghanistan.

She has been dismissive of allegations of widespread problems with the Veterans Health Administration, saying that veterans who get care are generally pleased with it and accusing Republicans of criticizing the agency due to an “ideological agenda.” Following severe criticism from veterans groups and others about her comments, she retracted her statement and weeks later while unveiling her VA reform plan called the problems “serious, systemic, and unacceptable.” Her plan would allow veterans to seek care outside the VA system in certain circumstances, but she has pledged she would oppose plans to privatize most services.

While she opposed many elements of the war on terrorism as a senator, she is generally thought to be more hawkish than most members of her party, having voted for military intervention in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Even within the Obama administration, Clinton was considered to take a relatively proactive posture on military efforts abroad.

She also voted for the Patriot Act in 2001 and again in 2005. Clinton has expressed concern that the international community is not taking the threat of terrorism and war seriously enough.

She has suggested (possibly inaccurately) that Edward Snowden, who leaked classified documents exposing domestic surveillance programs before fleeing to China and later Russia, could have come forward as a whistleblower and received protection, but instead broke the law and should face criminal sanctions if and when he returns to the U.S.

According to former Defense Secretary Robert Gates, who served under Obama while Hillary Clinton was secretary of state, Clinton admitted that her opposition to the troop surge in Iraq was based on political concerns and her 2008 presidential campaign. Clinton has denied the charge, saying Gates misunderstood what she had said.

In 2008 Clinton argued that the Iraq War had diverted focus from the fight in Afghanistan and said she would send more troops to that country, and as secretary of state she supported President Obama’s decision for an 18-month “surge” to fight the Taliban and al-Qaida. More recently she has said she agrees with Obama’s decision to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan through at least 2017.

As secretary of state, Clinton supported military intervention in Libya and the training of Syrian rebels, positions which compelled the administration to take a more aggressive pose. She has spoken against the use of U.S. ground troops to fight ISIS and and recently called for the U.S. to accept 65,000 refugees from the war-torn area. She has also backed the establishment of U.S.-enforced “no fly zones” in Syria and said she would increase the number of U.S. Special Forces personnel on the ground in Syria and Iraq as well as step up airstrikes against ISIS.

She has also called for United Nations sanctions against Iran, and stated that the use of military force against that country should not be taken off the table. In March 2015 she sharply criticized the Republican senators who signed a letter to the Iranian leadership warning them on the limits of a deal that was not ratified by Congress, and she praised the deal that Obama agreed to with Iran in July 2015.

She accused NATO of sliding into “military irrelevance” and fought for tougher sanctions against Russia.  She supports financial and military aid for Ukraine in its fight against Russian-backed separatists and has described Russia’s annexation of Crimea in harsh terms, comparing it to Nazi aggression. She has also said she favors imposing more sanctions on Russia if it assists Hezbollah in Syria.

As a U.S. senator, Clinton voted against the nominations of Justices John Roberts and Samuel Alito to the Supreme Court, as well as to Roberts’ elevation to the role of chief justice.

Clinton has praised the court’s opinions in King v. Burwell and Obergefell v. Hodges. She has called the court’s opinion in Citizens United v. FEC “a grave error” and has promised to “do everything I can to appoint Supreme Court justices who protect the right to vote and do not protect the right of billionaires to buy elections.” She has said her Supreme Court nominees must support overturning Citizens United. In terms of the type of nominee she would appoint, she cited those who “respected precedence, felt what life was like for normal Americans, and had a career path outside of school and a conservative think tank.”

She has also promised to “appoint judges to our courts who understand that Roe v. Wade isn’t just binding legal precedent,” but “the touchstone of our reproductive freedom, the embodiment of our most fundamental rights, and no one – no judge, no governor, no Senator, no President – has the right to take it away.”

Clinton has described the U.S Constitution as a “living and working” document.

On crime, Clinton has said she supports the death penalty in “egregious cases” that she thought would be “limited and rare.” She also suggested she favors significant changes to the criminal justice system to address “mass incarceration” and intends to offer specific policy proposals in the future.

She has made an amendment that would overturn the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision and limit political speech a centerpiece of her campaign.  She called the Supreme Court’s religious liberty decision in the Hobby Lobby case “deeply disturbing” and criticized the idea that the religious views of a company’s owners deserved constitutional protection.

Clinton has supported affirmative action policies in the past and is credited with helping to push Bill Clinton’s administration to fill half of all positions with women.

Clinton has generally favored stricter gun control laws, although she has endorsed the idea that the Second Amendment protects an individual right. She supports passage of a new “assault weapons” ban similar to the one passed in 1994, and favors allowing states and localities to determine their own gun laws, possibly including complete bans such as Washington, D.C., once had. She voted against legislation that would have prohibited lawsuits against gun manufacturers and sellers if their product were used in a crime.

In her 2000 U.S. Senate race she backed federal legislation that would have required gun owners to be licensed and handguns to be registered, but by her 2008 presidential campaign had backed off her support for this. More recently she has called for allowing lawsuits against firearm manufacturers and dealers if their products used in a crime, eliminating the requirement that gun sales be allowed if a background check doesn’t clear the system in 3 days, and imposing background checks on private firearm sales through executive action.

She has been a consistent advocate for abortion rights, most recently criticizing a House bill that would prohibit the procedure after 20 weeks. Her “HillaryCare” proposal in 1994 included language requiring abortion to be covered by all insurance plans. She has said she could not support any U.S. Supreme Court nominee who didn’t support the Roe v. Wade decision.

Clinton recently shifted her longstanding position against same-sex marriage, endorsing it in March 2013 after opposing it during the 2008 campaign. She praised the June 2015 Supreme Court ruling finding a constitutional right to same-sex marriage.

Clinton criticized Indiana’s Religious Freedom Restoration Act, a law that would have allowed individuals, companies, and other organizations the opportunity to claim a religious exemption from having to follow certain laws. She said a Kentucky county clerk who refused to issue marriage licenses following the Supreme Court’s decision on same-sex marriage was “breaking the law by denying other Americans their constitutional rights.” She also denounced the Supreme Court’s decision in the Hobby Lobby case that protected the rights of religious business owners to not have to include certain forms of contraception in their employee health plans.

She was a co-sponsor of the Workplace Religious Freedom Act, along with a bipartisan group of U.S. senators including Sam Brownback, Tom Coburn, and Chuck Schumer, but has also endorsed the so-called Equality Act, which could trample the religious freedoms of individuals and organizations who object to same-sex marriage.

She has made an amendment that would overturn the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision and limit political speech a centerpiece of her campaign.  She called the Supreme Court’s religious liberty decision in the Hobby Lobby case “deeply disturbing” and criticized the idea that the religious views of a company’s owners deserved constitutional protection. Clinton supported the Family Entertainment Protection Act, legislation that would regulate the video game industry for violent content.

In the aftermath of the Bush v. Gore decision following the 2000 election, Clinton stated that the electoral college should be scrapped in favor of a national popular vote. She is also on the record asserting Congress ought to be more respectful of presidential authority.

As first lady of Arkansas, Clinton worked to establish teacher testing and tougher state standards for curriculum and classroom size. Clinton has been a supporter of charter schools for several decades, although she has recently criticized them, saying that “most charter schools, they don’t take the hardest-to-teach kids, or, if they do, they don’t keep them.” She further explained that she views the role of charter schools as a way to “learn what worked and then apply them in the public schools.” She remains a backer of charter schools, however.

She also voted in favor of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), though she opposes school choice and any sort of voucher program for low-income students. She has also voiced concerns over what she considers excessive testing of schoolchildren required under NCLB. She has proposed providing federal funds to states that offer universal kindergarten.

She has endorsed Obama’s call for community colleges to be free and has proposed a $350 billion plan to make college more affordable that includes federal funds to states who increase their spending on higher education, reducing loan rates, and requiring colleges to repay some portion of defaulted student loans.