Contact Us

Thank you for your interest in the Leadership Project for America PAC, please submit any comments, questions, or requests in the form below.

    Full Name

    Email Address:




    The Leadership Project For America Logo

    Follow Us

    Like Us on Facebook Connect to Us on Twitter RSS Feed for LPA PAC

    Compare Candidates

    Click any of the issues below to compare what each candidate has said about the selected issue.




    Environment & Energy



    Health Care

    Entitlements & Welfare




    Corporate Welfare

    Finance & Banking

    Military Preparedness & Budget

    War On Terror

    International Relations


    Free Speech & Religious Liberty



    She has stated she supported the extension of the Bush tax cuts as well as lowering the marginal income tax rate, eliminating the capital gains tax on small-business investment, eliminating the estate tax and opposing Internet taxes. In 2010, Fiorina signed the Americans for Tax Reform’s “no new taxes” pledge – often considered a key document for candidates to sign to demonstrate their commitment to fiscal restraint and responsibility.

    While Fiorina has yet to release a detailed tax reform plan, she has said she wants to “lower every rate, close every loophole,” and during the third Republican debate she said she believes a new tax code should be roughly three pages long, and she specifically pointed to a three-page proposal by two Hoover Institution scholars in 1995 to implement a 19 percent flat tax with substantial personal and dependent deductions. It is not clear what, if any, adjustments Fiorina would make to such a plan.

    Fiorina has proposed that all federal regulations be subject to a review that would require they be justified or eliminated, something she believes most regulations will not survive. She has also endorsed the REINS Act, which would require any regulation with an economic cost of $100 million or more to be approved by Congress.

    Fiorina believes in “rational regulatory policy” but feels that many regulations have “run amok.” In a 2010 debate against Boxer, Fiorina used the Endangered Species Act as an example of some of those regulations. She also said that to create jobs small businesses needed to be “freed from strangling regulations.” She opposes a federal mandate requiring employers to offer paid maternity leave.

    Fiorina harshly criticized the FCC’s net neutrality proposal, calling it “crony capitalism” and noting that it benefits large companies who are better able to navigate complex and expensive regulations. She also opposes increases in the minimum wage because she says they destroy jobs, and notes it should be a state issue because “it makes no sense to say that the min­im­um wage in New York City is the same as the min­im­um wage in Ma­son City, Iowa.”

    She has endorsed legislation known as the Employee Rights Act that would guarantee workers have the right to a secret ballot election in union organizing efforts, require recertification of unions once more than half of the employees covered under the original agreement have ceased to be employed, and allow employees to prohibit their private contact information from being shared with union organizers.

    California labor unions attacked Fiorina incessantly throughout her 2010 campaign, although there doesn’t seem to be a record of any interaction (or any conflicts) between her and unions throughout her business career.

    Fiorina is a supporter of offshore drilling but believes it needs to be done in a safe way. She supports the investment in green technology and suggests a national energy policy that promotes the development of domestic energy sources including nuclear, solar, and wind. She is also an advocate for the Keystone XL pipeline project and an opponent of cap-and-trade policy.

    She has stated that science indicates humans are contributing to climate change but rejects the policies and solutions advocated by traditional environmental groups, saying that “[a] single nation or a single state acting alone can make no difference at all…what I resent, frankly, is when people use half the science to destroy lives and livelihoods in coal mining communities because it will not make any difference at all. When people use half the science to destroy lives and livelihoods in the central valley of California, an area, the richest agricultural land in the world that has been decimated and destroyed in a man-made drought because of climate change… We can shut down everything in this country and it will make no difference because the scientists are clear. In order to really combat this we need an effort that is global in scope over many decades, costing trillions of dollars. And so I believe, as with many problems, the answer to this problem is not regulation, it is innovation.”

    In her 2010 campaign, she stated her support for abolishing earmarks in the federal budget and called for greater transparency and accountability. She also supported limiting federal salaries and benefits, as well as urging the federal government to adopt “zero base budgeting,” which would end the current practice of assuming the previous year’s spending should be maintained and increased. More recently, she has pledged that she would balance the federal budget during her first term if elected president.

    No information available.

    Fiorina favors repealing Obamacare and replacing it with a system that provides more competition and choice for consumers. She has also advocated for creating a subsidized pool that would provide coverage for high-risk individuals, a policy favored by most free-market health care advocates, and also supports medical malpractice reform.

    In a 2013 interview, Fiorina said she favored an individual mandate for some minimal level of catastrophic health coverage and a prohibition on insurance companies either denying coverage or raising premiums on people with pre-existing medical conditions, although she was still very critical of Obamacare. She has since said she no longer favors either of those policies, instead believing other proposals such as high-risk pools without a mandate are sufficient to deal with pre-existing conditions.

    One mandate she does support is a requirement that all health care providers including doctors, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies should “publish their prices, costs, outcomes.”

    During her Senate campaign, Fiorina did state she supported entitlement reform but didn’t provide specifics. She has noted that she would not want to affect current retirees or those that are close to retirement.

    She was supportive of free trade agreements with South Korea, Panama and Colombia but announced her opposition to giving Obama the trade negotiating authority needed to complete the Trans-Pacific Partnership, saying he “does not have a track record of the details matching his selling point.” Following completion of the agreement she said she opposed the deal, instead favoring bilateral trade deals.

    Fiorina received significant criticism for her stance on immigration policy from California labor unions during her 2010 campaign. She supported an Arizona law aimed at reducing illegal immigration, and said the borders need to be secured before she’ll support the ability for illegal immigrants to obtain legal status. She favors a legal work status, but not citizenship, for illegal immigrants currently in the country.

    Fiorina also supported the DREAM Act in her 2010 campaign, federal legislation that would allow children of illegal immigrants a pathway to citizenship, as well as reforms in the guest worker program, citing the need of California’s economy for guest workers in the agricultural and restaurant industries.

    More recently she has said she would end “sanctuary cities,” which are municipalities that generally do not cooperate with federal authorities in enforcing immigration laws, and she also advocated for reforming the current legal immigration system. She does not believe “birthright citizenship” should be eliminated.

    Fiorina has said relatively little on campaign finance regulation that restricts political speech, although she has said whatever rules are in place must be neutral and not favor some voices over others.

    In her role as chairman of Victory ’08, Fiorina spoke about McCain’s opposition to agriculture subsidies. In 2015, she said “the government should be out of all of the tax credit and subsidies business, whether it is for sugar or oil or renewable fuels…. I think we need a period of time to sunset this all of this federal government involvement so industries can be prepared.”

    At a July 2015 event with Iowa farmers, Fiorina criticized the federal government’s response to an avian flu outbreak that harmed U.S. poultry producers. She said the funds used to compensate poultry farmers should have been handled by the state government.

    Fiorina defended the 2008 bank bailout as an adviser for McCain but later criticized them when she ran for the Senate. She has also criticized the Dodd-Frank regulations on the financial sector.

    She has frequently criticized crony capitalism, citing the size and complexity of government as key element of government favoritism for some businesses over others. She called for phasing out all energy subsidies by 2020, including renewable energy subsidies such as the renewable fuels standard. She supports eliminating the Export-Import Bank.

    Fiorina said in a statement regarding energy and agriculture subsidies, “The right answer ultimately is that the government shouldn’t be in the business of subsidizing anything. Subsidies and a variety of tax credits distort the markets.”


    Fiorina defended the 2008 bank bailout as an adviser for McCain but later criticized them when she ran for the Senate. She has also criticized the Dodd-Frank regulations on the financial sector.

    Fiorina believes there is opportunity to find savings within the Department of Defense but does not support cutting the Homeland Security budget. She opposed the Obama administration’s announcement that it may shrink the U.S. Navy’s fleet of aircraft carriers and has called for the Pentagon bureaucracy to be shrunk in favor of more military capability, what she has called the “tooth to tail” ratio.

    She opposed establishing a timetable for the removal of troops from Afghanistan and supports Obama’s decision for airstrikes in Syria. She also has criticized the administration’s handling of the threat from ISIS, saying it should represent an opportunity to build an alliance with other nations threatened by the terrorist organization but that it would require American leadership, something she feels Obama has failed to provide.

    She specifically said she would arm both the Kurds and the Jordanians in their fight against ISIS and would provide intelligence support to Egypt for the same purpose. She does not believe at the moment that the U.S. should deploy ground troops to directly fight ISIS.

    She opposed establishing a timetable for the removal of troops from Afghanistan and supports Obama’s decision for airstrikes in Syria. She also has criticized the administration’s handling of the threat from ISIS, saying it should represent an opportunity to build an alliance with other nations threatened by the terrorist organization but that it would require American leadership, something she feels Obama has failed to provide.

    Fiorina has been sharply critical of Obama’s handling of Iran’s nuclear program, calling his announcement of a framework for a deal with Iran a mistake because it gave the Iranians leverage. She has pledged that as president she would demand a new deal with Iran to replace the one the Obama administration negotiated and also said she would reimpose tough sanctions on Iran.

    She does believe in a two-state solution to solve the ongoing conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.

    Fiorina called for military support of Ukraine in its battle with Russian-backed separatists, noting that Putin “will not be stopped unless he senses strength and purpose on the other side.” She also said as commander in chief she would conduct military exercises in the Baltic states that could be threatened by future Russian aggression, and she would also install ballistic missile defense systems in Poland.

    She objected to the Obama administration’s decision to remove Cuba from the state sponsors of terror list, saying the communist nation didn’t deserve it and oppression had gotten worse in the country.

    Fiorina has referred to China as America’s “rising adversary,” calling on the U.S. to work with Vietnam and the Philippines to improve their surveillance capabilities as a deterrent to China and also to help Australia and Japan build their militaries. In response to what she has called “new Chinese aggression” in the South China Sea she has said she would order more flyovers of disputed areas, and she also labeled Chinese cyberattacks on the U.S. as “acts of aggression.”

    She has advocated passage of the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act, which would give companies immunity from lawsuits for sharing information with the federal government in an effort to fight cyber attacks. She also called for more personnel to be hired at the FBI and CIA to address terrorism, suggesting there is a “misallocation” of resources when the IRS has more employees than those two agencies.


    In response to the Supreme Court’s decision in King v. Burwell (Obamacare tax credits), Fiorina called it “outrageous that the Supreme Court once again rewrote ObamaCare to save this deeply flawed law despite the plain text.” She was similarly critical of the Court’s Obergefell v. Hodges (same-sex marriage) decision, stating that she does “not agree that the Court can or should redefine marriage,” and that the “responsibility should have remained with states and voters.” She went on to call for the protection of religious liberty in the wake of the opinion.

    She supports overturning the court’s decision in Roe v. Wade “if the opportunity presented itself.”

    She has stated that she opposes a “litmus test” for Supreme Court nominees. She has pledged to appoint judges similar to her father, Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Justice Joseph Sneed III, whom Fiorina describes as a “constitutionalist.”

    She has been critical of “activist judges,” particularly in the context of the Obergefell case. During the 2010 campaign, Fiorina said that had she been in office, she would have supported the nomination of now Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor despite Fiorina’s opposition to judicial activism – a matter typically raised by Sotomayor’s critics. Fiorina’s father, Joseph Sneed, was a law professor, a deputy attorney general under Richard Nixon, and a federal judge, and he compiled a record generally regarded as conservative. Fiorina has stated she would look to appoint judges in her father’s mold.

    Fiorina is a supporter of the death penalty and of reforms that will redirect nonviolent drug offenders to programs instead of putting them in prison. These reforms are advocated for through the American Conservative Union Foundation’s Center of Criminal Justice Reform.

    During her 2010 campaign against California Sen. Barbara Boxer, Fiorina said she opposed the 1994 assault weapon ban passed by Congress and signed by former President Bill Clinton. She has sharply criticized politicians who have called for tougher gun control measures following shootings at a church in Charleston, S.C., and Roanoke, Va., accusing them of politicizing the tragedies. In a taped message to the NRA annual convention in 2015, she noted that her husband had a concealed carry permit when they lived in California and has one in Virginia where they live now, and said that she supports the rights of gun owners because “it is our God-given right and it is our Constitutional right.”

    She is pro-life and has told the story how her mother-in-law rejected medical advice to abort Fiorina’s future husband due to concerns for her health. Fiorina favors overturning Roe v. Wade and supports abortion only in the cases of rape, incest, or if the life of the mother is endangered. She ran as a pro-life candidate in California in 2010, something she says you don’t do “unless you really mean it,” and has described the Democratic position on abortion as “extreme,” summarizing it as “any abortion, any time, for any reason at any point in a woman’s pregnancy, right up until the last minute, to be paid by taxpayers.”

    Fiorina said she voted for California’s Proposition 8 referendum defining marriage as between a man and a woman, but she does support civil unions and while she was CEO of Hewlett-Packard the company offered benefits to same-sex partners. She said she believes states should be allowed to set their own policies on marriage.

    Fiorina has said relatively little on campaign finance regulation that restricts political speech, although she has said whatever rules are in place must be neutral and not favor some voices over others.

    On religious liberty, Fiorina supported the Supreme Court’s Hobby Lobby decision allowing business owners to run their businesses in accordance with their religious views and also defended Indiana’s Religious Freedom Restoration Act.

    Her only apparent statements relating to federalism are her comments related to gay marriage and her call for the courts not to short-circuit the conversations that are going on at the community and church level. She also exhibits pro-local viewpoints in her position on education and her opposition to Common Core, and she has noted that the Constitution does not authorize the federal government to set up retirement plans or enact a minimum wage.

    However, her opposition to Common Core is somewhat contrary to her support of the No Child Left Behind Act, which also expanded the federal role in education.

    She calls for more accountability, choice and local control in education and says that a larger [federal] education system does not achieve success in education. However, her opposition to Common Core is somewhat contrary to her support of the No Child Left Behind Act, which also expanded the federal role in education.

    Fiorina has stated it should be the parents’ choice whether to vaccinate their children, but she believes the science is clear that vaccines are safe and effective and that public schools can require children to be vaccinated in order to attend.

    As a senator, Clinton voted against President George W. Bush’s major tax-cut packages. That said, once they were enacted, she did generally vote to extend many of the existing cuts.

    She has endorsed the so-called “Buffett Rule,” which aims to make high-income earners pay a larger percentage of their income in taxes, without providing many details other than a 5 percent surtax on personal income over $5 million, unveiled in early January 2016.

    In order to pay for her five-year, $275 billion infrastructure spending proposal, Clinton has said she would raise taxes on businesses (which she terms “reforms”), but she has not specified what taxes would be raised.

    Clinton voted in favor of a bill to extend the moratorium on Internet taxes.

    According to an analysis by the Tax Policy Center, Clinton’s tax policies would raise approximately $1.1 trillion over the next decade, with the top 1 percent of earners paying nearly three-quarters of those new taxes.

    As a senator she voted to increase the minimum wage. She has announced her support for a $12 federal minimum wage, well above the current $7.25 standard but below the $15 level many progressive activists prefer.

    She also voted in favor of the Sarbanes-Oxley bill to impose heavy accounting and bookkeeping regulations on certain industries and was a co-sponsor of legislation after the housing crisis that would have imposed a temporary moratorium on foreclosures. She endorsed Obama’s call for tough “net neutrality” regulations to be imposed on Internet service providers.

    As part of a proposal to reduce energy use in the U.S., she announced she would work to establish energy-efficient model building codes, expand the number of products covered under Energy Star ratings, and subject more appliances and equipment to energy efficiency mandates.

    Clinton is on the record speaking of the benefits of fracking, though she favors regulating the practice.

    As a senator, Clinton supported a so-called card check bill, which would allow unions to dispense with the need for a vote to organize at a particular company. The bill also curtailed an employer’s ability to influence the outcome of organization efforts.

    Clinton is on the record speaking of the benefits of fracking, though she favors regulating the practice. She nominally supports exporting natural gas and oil production and sees gas as a clean, job-creating alternative to coal. After months of declining to weigh in on whether the Keystone XL pipeline should be approved, citing her role as secretary of state in helping guide the assessment process, Clinton finally announced in September 2015 that she opposed construction of the pipeline.

    Clinton opposes drilling in the Arctic Wildlife National Reserve and voted in favor of an amendment to that effect. She does support some offshore drilling, but again calls for heavy regulation by government in that arena. In August 2015 she announced her opposition to an Obama administration decision to allow drilling in the Arctic Ocean. She has also said that she would prevent any further development of fossil fuel resources on federal lands, although it wasn’t clear if she would allow extraction to continue on sites that have already been developed.

    In a March 2016 forum, she said a Clinton administration would “put a lot of coal miners and coal companies out of business.”

    Clinton strongly favors efforts to curb carbon emissions in response to what she perceives to be a threat posed by global warming. A firm supporter of cap-and-trade schemes, she also supports the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. As a senator, she supported a bill that would have expanded federally protected lands and waters.

    As part of her 2016 campaign, Clinton has called for a goal of 500 million additional solar panels installed across the country and for renewable resources to generate enough electricity to power every home in the country.

    Like Obama, Clinton proposed a stimulus package during her 2008 campaign. Her $110 billion plan would have focused on helping low-income families. She has long been opposed to a balanced budget amendment, though she did vote in favor of a one-year moratorium on earmarks. In 2001, she voted in favor of an additional $123.1 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education.

    Clinton has been sharply critical of the budget sequestration enacted as part of the debt limit deal in 2011, focusing in on the reduction in spending on scientific research. She also praised the 2013 Ryan-Murray budget compromise deal to increase spending in the short term in exchange for promised cuts in later years.

    No information available

    Clinton has said she does not support a single-payer plan but meeting notes from her early health care reform efforts during her husband’s presidency show she favored it at that time. She has expressed her support for Obamacare and said she is open to making changes to it, and she proposed repealing the so-called “Cadillac tax” imposed on expensive health plans with the caveat that the lost revenue should be made up elsewhere.

    She has also laid out specific proposals to limit out-of-pocket health care costs, including requiring insurers to provide three “sick” visits to the doctor at no out-of-pocket cost, offering a tax credit for out-of-pocket costs, and capping out-of-pocket drug costs at $250 a month.

    She reiterated her support for a “public option” in Obamacare, a government-run insurer that would compete with private insurance companies in the market. She supported this idea in her 2008 campaign as well.

    She also would require pharmaceutical companies to invest a specific percentage of their profits in research and development, eliminate the tax deductibility of consumer advertising, give Medicare the power to set drug prices for the program, and reduce the number of years biological medicines received patent protection from 12 to seven.

    Her campaign has suggested that funds collected from pharmaceutical companies that fail to invest the required percentage in research and development be given to generic medicine manufacturers to encourage competition.

    In December 2015, Clinton proposed spending $2 billion a year over 10 years to find a cure to Alzheimer’s disease.

    Clinton was also instrumental in passing the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), a program that provides federal matching funds to states to provide health insurance for low-income families with children.

    Clinton joined most of her Democratic colleagues in the Senate in voting against President Bush’s expansion of Medicare to create a prescription drug plan, largely based on a belief it was not generous enough to seniors and did not do more to control drug prices.

    During her 2008 presidential campaign, Clinton proposed a plan that would mandate insurance coverage for all Americans. The plan’s cost, estimated (by her campaign) at $110 billion, would have been funded by repealing the Bush tax cuts.

    One area Clinton did focus on during her Senate career was entitlements. In the past she supported keeping the cap on taxable income for Social Security, but more recently has suggested she might consider extending payroll taxes at income above the cap. She has proposed an initiative that would create retirement accounts for Americans but opposes any effort to privatize Social Security by allowing individuals to control their own accounts. She has said she wants to “enhance” Social Security, thought to mean offering more generous benefits to poorer retirees, but has not provided specifics or addressed the question of whether benefits should be increased for all retirees. She has said she would not rule out raising the retirement age for some people in the future, although she also said she doesn’t favor it.

    In 1996, she was heavily criticized for supporting her husband’s decision to sign the welfare reform bill, and she supported a bipartisan plan to increase work requirements for welfare recipients. She has proposed an initiative that would create retirement accounts for Americans but opposes any effort to privatize Social Security by allowing individuals to control their own accounts. She has said she wants to “enhance” Social Security, thought to mean offering more generous benefits to at least some retirees, without providing specifics.

    While not overtly opposed to NAFTA, given that it was a signature priority for her husband, she did state that she thought there ought to be higher priorities, such as health care. She went on to criticize NAFTA during her 2008 campaign for the presidency. She also opposed the Central America Free Trade Agreement, though she favored trade agreements with Singapore, Chile and Oman. More recently, Clinton has expressed reservations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a trade deal recently concluded by the Obama administration, and announced she would have to study the deal to decide whether to support it.

    Clinton strongly favors immigration reform. She supported a comprehensive immigration reform plan in 2007 that would create a new type of visa allowing anyone in the U.S. without a valid visa to remain in the country for the rest of their lives. After 13 years, these immigrants would then be eligible for citizenship.  She voted for the construction of a fence between the United States and Mexico and supports a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants already here, which she calls “essential” to reform.

    More recently, she vowed to go beyond Obama’s executive orders on immigration to expand the ability of illegal aliens to stay in the U.S. She has criticized the “sanctuary city” policies that prevent or hinder the deportation of illegal immigrants who commit other serious crimes.

    She has seldom weighed in on agricultural issues. She did vote in favor of an amendment limiting subsidies to a married couple to $250,000, and more recently said she would double funding to the Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development program, which provides training and assistance to people new to agriculture.

    Clinton supports maintaining the Export-Import Bank, a taxpayer-supported institution that primarily benefits large U.S. corporations including Boeing and General Electric. At an event for the biotechnology industry, she suggested the federal government should subsidize companies in the industry against the risks they face as investors, and she proposes doling out to generic medicine manufacturers funds that have been collected from pharmaceutical companies that don’t in her view invest enough in research and development.

    As part of a $25 billion program aimed at supporting small businesses, particularly those owned by women and minorities, she has pledged that she will “encourage banks, businesses, and foundations to match capital and financing” to entrepreneurs who have gone through government-approved training and support programs, which could put the government in the business of directing private investment into favored firms.

    As a senator she previously opposed an ethanol mandate requiring an increasing amount to be blended into gasoline, but in 2015 she reversed her position to favor the mandate.

    Clinton voted for the Troubled Asset Relief Program in 2008, generally described as a bailout for large banks, when she was still in the U.S. Senate.

    Clinton revealed a Wall Street reform agenda in October 2015 that would extend the statute of limitations for financial crimes, devote more Department of Justice and SEC resources to investigation and prosecution of financial crimes, place a “fee on risk” aimed at leverage and short-term loans by financial firms, and impose requirements that bonuses paid to senior managers and executives be returned if the bank later loses money and has its financial health imperiled. She has also called for giving regulators the authority to re-organize or break up large firms, without providing details, as well as imposing a tax on high-frequency trading.

    Clinton voted for the Troubled Asset Relief Program in 2008, generally described as a bailout for large banks, when she was still in the U.S. Senate.

    Clinton voted in favor of the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation imposing new accounting and investment regulations on companies and has opposed efforts to reform or repeal the Dodd-Frank regulations of the financial industry. She has also opposed efforts to bring back the Glass-Steagall Act’s separation of investment and commercial banking. As part of her rural development agenda, she has proposed simplifying regulations for community banks that often provide credit in rural areas.

    She has also proposed increasing the potential rewards for Wall Street whistleblowers who come forward with information, currently capped at $1.6 million, and banning “golden parachute” payouts to persons in the financial industry who go to work for government.

    As a senator, Clinton proposed a bill to increase the size of the Army by 80,000 soldiers. This was even as she opposed the Bush administration on Iraq and Afghanistan.

    She has been dismissive of allegations of widespread problems with the Veterans Health Administration, saying that veterans who get care are generally pleased with it and accusing Republicans of criticizing the agency due to an “ideological agenda.” Following severe criticism from veterans groups and others about her comments, she retracted her statement and weeks later while unveiling her VA reform plan called the problems “serious, systemic, and unacceptable.” Her plan would allow veterans to seek care outside the VA system in certain circumstances, but she has pledged she would oppose plans to privatize most services.

    While she opposed many elements of the war on terrorism as a senator, she is generally thought to be more hawkish than most members of her party, having voted for military intervention in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Even within the Obama administration, Clinton was considered to take a relatively proactive posture on military efforts abroad.

    She also voted for the Patriot Act in 2001 and again in 2005. Clinton has expressed concern that the international community is not taking the threat of terrorism and war seriously enough.

    She has suggested (possibly inaccurately) that Edward Snowden, who leaked classified documents exposing domestic surveillance programs before fleeing to China and later Russia, could have come forward as a whistleblower and received protection, but instead broke the law and should face criminal sanctions if and when he returns to the U.S.

    According to former Defense Secretary Robert Gates, who served under Obama while Hillary Clinton was secretary of state, Clinton admitted that her opposition to the troop surge in Iraq was based on political concerns and her 2008 presidential campaign. Clinton has denied the charge, saying Gates misunderstood what she had said.

    In 2008 Clinton argued that the Iraq War had diverted focus from the fight in Afghanistan and said she would send more troops to that country, and as secretary of state she supported President Obama’s decision for an 18-month “surge” to fight the Taliban and al-Qaida. More recently she has said she agrees with Obama’s decision to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan through at least 2017.

    As secretary of state, Clinton supported military intervention in Libya and the training of Syrian rebels, positions which compelled the administration to take a more aggressive pose. She has spoken against the use of U.S. ground troops to fight ISIS and and recently called for the U.S. to accept 65,000 refugees from the war-torn area. She has also backed the establishment of U.S.-enforced “no fly zones” in Syria and said she would increase the number of U.S. Special Forces personnel on the ground in Syria and Iraq as well as step up airstrikes against ISIS.

    She has also called for United Nations sanctions against Iran, and stated that the use of military force against that country should not be taken off the table. In March 2015 she sharply criticized the Republican senators who signed a letter to the Iranian leadership warning them on the limits of a deal that was not ratified by Congress, and she praised the deal that Obama agreed to with Iran in July 2015.

    She accused NATO of sliding into “military irrelevance” and fought for tougher sanctions against Russia.  She supports financial and military aid for Ukraine in its fight against Russian-backed separatists and has described Russia’s annexation of Crimea in harsh terms, comparing it to Nazi aggression. She has also said she favors imposing more sanctions on Russia if it assists Hezbollah in Syria.

    As a U.S. senator, Clinton voted against the nominations of Justices John Roberts and Samuel Alito to the Supreme Court, as well as to Roberts’ elevation to the role of chief justice.

    Clinton has praised the court’s opinions in King v. Burwell and Obergefell v. Hodges. She has called the court’s opinion in Citizens United v. FEC “a grave error” and has promised to “do everything I can to appoint Supreme Court justices who protect the right to vote and do not protect the right of billionaires to buy elections.” She has said her Supreme Court nominees must support overturning Citizens United. In terms of the type of nominee she would appoint, she cited those who “respected precedence, felt what life was like for normal Americans, and had a career path outside of school and a conservative think tank.”

    She has also promised to “appoint judges to our courts who understand that Roe v. Wade isn’t just binding legal precedent,” but “the touchstone of our reproductive freedom, the embodiment of our most fundamental rights, and no one – no judge, no governor, no Senator, no President – has the right to take it away.”

    Clinton has described the U.S Constitution as a “living and working” document.

    On crime, Clinton has said she supports the death penalty in “egregious cases” that she thought would be “limited and rare.” She also suggested she favors significant changes to the criminal justice system to address “mass incarceration” and intends to offer specific policy proposals in the future.

    She has made an amendment that would overturn the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision and limit political speech a centerpiece of her campaign.  She called the Supreme Court’s religious liberty decision in the Hobby Lobby case “deeply disturbing” and criticized the idea that the religious views of a company’s owners deserved constitutional protection.

    Clinton has supported affirmative action policies in the past and is credited with helping to push Bill Clinton’s administration to fill half of all positions with women.

    Clinton has generally favored stricter gun control laws, although she has endorsed the idea that the Second Amendment protects an individual right. She supports passage of a new “assault weapons” ban similar to the one passed in 1994, and favors allowing states and localities to determine their own gun laws, possibly including complete bans such as Washington, D.C., once had. She voted against legislation that would have prohibited lawsuits against gun manufacturers and sellers if their product were used in a crime.

    In her 2000 U.S. Senate race she backed federal legislation that would have required gun owners to be licensed and handguns to be registered, but by her 2008 presidential campaign had backed off her support for this. More recently she has called for allowing lawsuits against firearm manufacturers and dealers if their products used in a crime, eliminating the requirement that gun sales be allowed if a background check doesn’t clear the system in 3 days, and imposing background checks on private firearm sales through executive action.

    She has been a consistent advocate for abortion rights, most recently criticizing a House bill that would prohibit the procedure after 20 weeks. Her “HillaryCare” proposal in 1994 included language requiring abortion to be covered by all insurance plans. She has said she could not support any U.S. Supreme Court nominee who didn’t support the Roe v. Wade decision.

    Clinton recently shifted her longstanding position against same-sex marriage, endorsing it in March 2013 after opposing it during the 2008 campaign. She praised the June 2015 Supreme Court ruling finding a constitutional right to same-sex marriage.

    Clinton criticized Indiana’s Religious Freedom Restoration Act, a law that would have allowed individuals, companies, and other organizations the opportunity to claim a religious exemption from having to follow certain laws. She said a Kentucky county clerk who refused to issue marriage licenses following the Supreme Court’s decision on same-sex marriage was “breaking the law by denying other Americans their constitutional rights.” She also denounced the Supreme Court’s decision in the Hobby Lobby case that protected the rights of religious business owners to not have to include certain forms of contraception in their employee health plans.

    She was a co-sponsor of the Workplace Religious Freedom Act, along with a bipartisan group of U.S. senators including Sam Brownback, Tom Coburn, and Chuck Schumer, but has also endorsed the so-called Equality Act, which could trample the religious freedoms of individuals and organizations who object to same-sex marriage.

    She has made an amendment that would overturn the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision and limit political speech a centerpiece of her campaign.  She called the Supreme Court’s religious liberty decision in the Hobby Lobby case “deeply disturbing” and criticized the idea that the religious views of a company’s owners deserved constitutional protection. Clinton supported the Family Entertainment Protection Act, legislation that would regulate the video game industry for violent content.

    In the aftermath of the Bush v. Gore decision following the 2000 election, Clinton stated that the electoral college should be scrapped in favor of a national popular vote. She is also on the record asserting Congress ought to be more respectful of presidential authority.

    As first lady of Arkansas, Clinton worked to establish teacher testing and tougher state standards for curriculum and classroom size. Clinton has been a supporter of charter schools for several decades, although she has recently criticized them, saying that “most charter schools, they don’t take the hardest-to-teach kids, or, if they do, they don’t keep them.” She further explained that she views the role of charter schools as a way to “learn what worked and then apply them in the public schools.” She remains a backer of charter schools, however.

    She also voted in favor of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), though she opposes school choice and any sort of voucher program for low-income students. She has also voiced concerns over what she considers excessive testing of schoolchildren required under NCLB. She has proposed providing federal funds to states that offer universal kindergarten.

    She has endorsed Obama’s call for community colleges to be free and has proposed a $350 billion plan to make college more affordable that includes federal funds to states who increase their spending on higher education, reducing loan rates, and requiring colleges to repay some portion of defaulted student loans.